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Anti-Rollback Automatically applies service brakes to prevent the truck from rolling from a stop opposite the intended direction of travel. Reverse Shift Inhibit Ensures reverse propulsion is not applied when the machine is moving forward. Box Section Design The F AC frame uses a box-section design, incorporating forgings and castings in high stress areas with deep penetration continuous wrap-around welds to resist fatigue from racking loads.

Steel Structures - Mild steel used throughout frame provides flexibility, durability and resistance to impact loads and allows for field repairs with common weld practices. Castings - Castings have large radii to dissipate stress in areas of high stress concentration. Castings allow welds to be placed in lower stress areas for longer frame life. Suspension System Designed to dissipate haul road and loading impacts for longer frame life and a more comfortable ride. Durable Design - Large diameter cylinders with nitrogen over oil design for long life with minimal maintenance.

Front Cylinders - Have preset caster and camber and are mounted to the frame. They also serve as steering king pins for a tight turning radius. Rear Cylinders - Allow axle oscillation and absorb bending and twisting loads from the haul roads, reducing stress on the main frame. Four-bar Link Rear Suspension Directs a more even load distribution into the main frame - operators report a more secure feeling of the truck being well connected and under control.

Steering System Single tie rod steering system is simpler and requires less maintenance. Truck Body Systems Designed and built for rugged performance and reliability. Cat Bodies for Cat Trucks Integral to the truck the body is designed to fit with the chassis and work as part of the truck system. Each body is sized to meet the payload requirements without compromise to vehicle balance, braking or control.

Liner options fit the body to the application. MSD II Body - Based on the mine site evaluation of your mine, the body is sized and configured to meet the specific needs dictated by fragmentation, abrasion, cohesion, and the loading tool. This body achieves an excellent balance of payload and durability. Gateless Coal Body - Eliminating problematic tail gates - the Gateless Coal Body is intended for dedicated coal haulage. Monitoring System Keeping your production at peak levels.

VIMS is able to monitor information from all vehicle systems. Data can be downloaded easily by Service Technicians for troubleshooting, planning and lowering costs. Advisor Display The Advisor display provides real-time performance, maintenance and diagnostic data to the operator or service technician. A large number of machine parameters can be viewed including temperature, pressure, speed, and payload. Payload Management Information is available to manage payloads to improve fleet effectiveness and loading tool match and to prevent overloading to help extend component life and lower operating and maintenance costs.

External Payload Indicators Standard external lights or optional digital display to help loading tool operator reach payload target and minimize overloading. Road Analysis Control Optional system measures frame rack, bias and pitch to help identify haul road problems so they can be repaired.

This leads to improved cycle time, component lives and fuel efficiency. VIMSpc An Off-board software reporting program that allows your service personnel to download a complete record of machine health and productivity data. Health and payload reports can be generated for more effective machine management, which reduces downtime and lowers operating costs. Operator Environment You now have the choice to select a cab with the features you desire. There are three choices based on popular arrangements. Enhanced Operator Awareness The standard Cat Detect system uses Radar and Cameras to give the operator audible alarms and visual awareness of detected objects at start up and low speeds.

Ergonomic Layout To minimize operator fatigue and maximize productivity the all new F Series operator station is ergonomically designed for total machine control in a comfortable, productive and safe environment. Controls, levers, switches and gauges are positioned for ease of use. Viewing Area Designed for excellent all-around visibility and clear sight lines to the haul road, the large viewing area offers exceptional visibility, allowing the operator to maneuver with confidence for high productivity. The air cleaners have been relocated to the front of the truck, allowing the operator increased visibility.

Customer Support Keeping you running with the most experienced dealer network. Expert technicians have the knowledge, experience, training, parts and tooling to keep your running at high availability. Product Support Caterpillar supports the with a worldwide network of parts distribution, dealer service centers and technical training facilities.

Our global dealer network is ready to meet your support needs around the clock and around the world. Application Awareness Application and site-specific factors such as material density, loading practices, payload, speed, grade and haul road design and maintenance influence the cost to operate and maintain your haulage fleet. Your Cat dealer can provide help in understanding the effects application factors and operating practices have on maintenance and operating costs. They also offer training to help operators improve productivity, decrease downtime, reduce operating costs and enhance safety.

Serviceability Reduced maintenance time results in more productivity. Modular Design Major components can be serviced individually with minimal removal and installation time. Rear mounted generator is separate from the engine and can be removed without removing the body - wheel motors are separate from final drives. Engine turbos 4 are grouped in the front of the engine.

Weight is another factor of concern to owners of electric boat motors. A Lithium Iron Phosphate battery is usually about half the weight of an equivalent capacity lead acid battery. For example the photo of the battery bank below shows a large LiFePO4 battery bank used to power three motors fitted to a 55ft electric racing catamaran. It was originally planned to fit more than half a ton of AGM lead acid batteries to this boat before the owner learned of the benefits of LiFePO4 batteries.

Charging station

Due to the many benefits the owner of the boat decided to install LiFePO4 batteries instead and was able to reduce the total weight of the battery bank by more than half with the total of all twelve batteries weighing in at less than kg. To sum up, an overview of the benefits of Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries:. C or more without any degradation in performance.

There are already several brands of LiFePO4 batteries which are available to boat owners and are suitable for powering many kinds of electric motors from tiny trolling motors to large inboard electric motors of several horsepower. The prospective battery purchaser should be aware that the majority of the LiFePO4 batteries manufactured in China are of very poor quality and correspondingly provide poor overall performance.

These batteries will also have a shorter life than a quality LiFePO4 battery. Only high quality LiFePO4 batteries should be used by the electric boat owner so as to provide peace of mind in terms of battery reliability. If a battery manufacturer is not prepared to stand behind their own products by providing a lengthy factory backed warranty then it is best to steer well clear of these companies so as to avoid any possible headaches in the future.

For example some manufacturers will simply crimp end terminal caps on the cells while other manufacturers will spot weld or even fully laser weld the cell ends. Obviously a cell which is merely crimped will be cheaper to manufacture than a cell which is fully laser welded.

By the same token the crimped cell is also more prone to fail prematurely due to slow ingress of moisture, humidity and other atmospheric contaminants which in a laser welded cell are totally excluded from entering the cell for the life of the cell. It really is a case of having to pay more for quality. By paying more for a quality battery a great deal of frustration can be avoided and allow the electric boat owner to enjoy the tranquillity of silent, electric boating without any noise or exhaust fumes. There are a handful of manufacturers of A-grade quality Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries which will outlast several lead acid batteries and provide vastly superior performance and thereby bring much enjoyment to the owner of the electric boat they are fitted in.

Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries are sure to revolutionise and bring about the growth of the electric boating market in the years to come. Electric boats are definitely not a new concept. What is believed to be the very first marine outboard motor was invented in by a French inventor, Gustave Trouve, and it was electric. It was the Chicago Exposition in that put them on the map. Elco was requested to build fifty-five 55 foot electric launches for this event. Ticket sales to transport people around the Chicago area lakes and rivers exceeded 1,, That was over years ago and at that time electric motors were the preferred form of propulsion.

The electric "Picnic Launch" became the essence of a perfect lake cruise. There were, of course, steam engines that were very powerful, yet heavy, a lot of work and not conducive to a pleasant cruising experience - especially when their boilers would explode. In the late s, there were also gasoline engines. These engines at that time were called "Explosion Engines". The names were later changed to "Gasoline Engines" to make them sound safer, and more appealing to the consumer.

After about , gasoline and diesel engines became the primary propulsion units for boats - but they could never offer the quality of the electric cruising experience. At that time, electric boats lost their following, because the batteries could not carry enough energy to match the horsepower of the internal combustion engine - as folks became more intrigued with speed at the expense of comfort and quality of the boating experience.

However the Navy's submarines continued to rely heavily on electric propulsion - because it is fundamentally reliable, efficient, and quiet. Later on, Navy ships and commercial vessels returned to electric propulsion systems for the same reasons - but using generators to create the electricity. Today, the Queen Mary II is powered exclusively with electric motors that generate , horsepower.

So electric propulsion is not a "new concept" and is considered by far the most reliable form of propulsion. Not only is electric propulsion reliable and efficient, it offers the ultimate pleasure boating experience: relaxing, quiet, and NO smelly fumes. For these reasons combined with the advances in battery technology, electric pleasure boating has enjoyed a revival over the passed few decades.

Electric boating has become the boating lifestyle of choice for many thousands around the world in many different venues for the mainstream population. Before starting Tamarack Electric Boats, Montgomery Gisborne was interested in electric cars, but now he's focused on the water. Since , Gisborne has been involved in the technical aspects of electric vehicles in Canada.

Gisborne has been competing in the American version of the Tour del Sol since , placing first in , and he even created a similar race called the Canadian Clean Air Cruise. To date, Gisborne has logged over 31, miles of travel in electric vehicles. But he's not only concerned with cars. In he built one of the world's first electric snowmobiles, and two years later he founded Tamarack Electric Boats.

We've covered solar boats many times, and the company's latest invention, the Loon, caught our eye and when given the opportunity, we thought readers would like to know more about a man who designs such interesting electric vehicles. I had thought of building electric cars for a living, especially after coming in first in the American Tour del Sol electric car rally, but the reality that you cannot become GM overnight settled in. After much deliberation, I decided that the idea of a solar-powered boat must be a good one, perhaps my best, so I decided to build me first solar boat as a "science project" in The boat worked so well that I little choice but to purse it!

I think that we brought our ideas to NYS at a time when Canada seemed to focus its attention the Athabasca Tar Sands, and NYS was looking for sustainable product projects to create sustainable jobs. Then there's this crazy little piece of legislation which was brought into the North American Free Trade Agreement NAFTA called the Jones Act which prohibits Canadian companies from selling boats into the US, so we had a triumvirate of good reasons to move across the border.

You may have heard the old expression that "it takes a village. When I passed through Rome on my solar trek across the state in , i was overwhelmed by the reaction and enthusiasm of the people, more so that anywhere else I had traveled in my solar boats which says a lot. The entire town seemed to make time to be there to catch our lines as we tossed them to shore, which really impressed me.

The mayor of the town clearly saw the vision and has done more than we could ever have expected to convince us that Rome is our home. Incidentally, the first shovelful of earth removed in the construction of the Erie Canal was taken out of the ground pretty much in font of our shop on July 4th, I think we would have made the move anyway, without NYSERDA funding, but the funding made it possible and got us started much quicker than if we had to go it completely alone. The funding is great, but it takes more than money to create an industry, it takes drive and determination beyond my own.

People look at my boats and say, "Oh, I get it, when the is moored at the it is picked up a free charge. For example, it dramatically reduced Peukert Effect on lead-acid batteries. Without getting into a long-winded technical discussion, this effect has a negative effect on batteries when the boat is under power, reducing the instantaneous capacity of the energy storage cells, and the solar input helps to reduce that effect, thus increasing the effective range the boat can travel on a given charge.

This also helps the lead-acid batteries to better compete against other chemistries, such as nickel and lithium-based batteries at lower expense. I hate oil is the reason why I eschew any internal-combustion options. It is the greatest detriment to the North American economy and a threat to world peace.

Read Entire Article. Petersburg boaters Nancy Frainetti and Jeff Springfield pulled up to the fuel dock at Hutchinson Island Marriott Marina in Stuart Tuesday afternoon, one thing was noticeably absent — engine noise. Frainetti and Springfield, owners of Endeavour Green, builders of electric hybrid yachts, left St.

We had legs of this trip of 40, 47 and on Monday, 52 miles in a day. The electric motor uses a twin belt setup to turn the drive shaft for a 3-blade bronze inboard propeller. The batteries can be charged at home or marina by plugging into a volt outlet. To recharge the batteries while under way, a 3. During the 8-day trip, Springfield said only nine hours were put on the generator and at 3.

The Endeavour provided comfortable passage, Frainetti said, despite record heat during their trip. A full-length canvas top — one that can fold down and serve as a boat cover when not in use — shades a large area. Frainetti said that although the Endeavour has Eisenglass and air conditioning, they survived without it. Frainetti said she saw several manatees during the trip and counted 38 alligators while crossing Lake Okeechobee. Springfield said the hybrid technology is receiving a lot of interest from the boating community.

He said that one selling feature is the simplicity of its design. All the electrical components are solid state design. There are no fumes, vibration or noise. And because you are carrying little or no fuel, insurance rates are great. For more information visit www. A brand new boat making waves in South Florida, and it runs on batteries. They did it all on battery power, no gas or diesel fuel needed, unless you want to use the back-up generator on board. The Endeavor Green Company created the boat, which is equivalent to a gas or diesel fueled deck boat.

The owners say it's well worth the price, and it helps the environment. Endeavour Co-owner, Nancy Frainetti, says, "We have no emissions on the electric propulsion. So, it's as green as can be. What a wonderful benefit. The boat is also decked out with a bathroom on board and air conditioning. I only work 3 miles from home but with gas prices getting out of control, I thought it would be great to have an electric motorcycle.

This project took about 3 months of research and development not counting waiting for parts to come in or help from a friend with the welding. This may take a long time to pay off in gas savings, but if you add the fun of building and all of the environmental benefits, it was well worth the effort. With a top electric motorcycle motor speed of over 70 mph and 10 miles per charge, this electric motorcycle is perfect for me.

The following instructable will not give you exact step by step instructions, but if you have some mechanical skills and welding ability you should be okay. A little knowledge of electric motorcycle motor maintenance wouldn't hurt, too. However, I just read the user's manual and learned as I went. Every motorbike is different but the basic components can be the same.

Below is a list of the parts I used and where I got them, but you will have to do some research to figure out what fits your bike and requirements. Frame : I looked at many different bike styles and decided on a Honda Interceptor for my electric motorcycle conversion for a few reasons:. If you have an old bike or someone will donate one then that's great--but for the rest of us, try the local paper, junk yards, Craig's List or ebay motors.

Electric Motorcycle Motor :. After making cardboard mock ups of the D23 model I realized that there was no way six full sized batteries would fit and still look good. I ended up getting the D51 model. Half the size and weight but also half the storage. Electric Motorcycle Controller : You have to match your electric motorcycle controller to your voltage but the amperage is up to your budget.

It seems that there are only two real choices: Alltrax or Curtis. You'll have to decide for yourself, but I went with the 72V Amp Alltrax. I got the Magura K Twist grip throttle. Electric Motorcycle Charger : You have to match your charger with your voltage but the speed of charge in Amps is also up to your budget. I went with a Zivan NG1 but I have recently switched to six individual 3amp Soneil chargers to help balance the batteries.

I purchased a Sevcon 72V Input Electric Motorcycle Fuses : You'll want to get a fuse that matches your setup. I highly recommend battery terminal covers for safety.

As an added feature I wired up the ignition switch to the neutral indicator to show me when the bike was on. Additionally a volt meter, metal grinder and crimper are used in this electric motorcycle conversion project. Start the electric motorcycle conversion by removing all of those nasty internal combustion engine parts. Remove the gas tank and using your grinder or other cutting tool to cut out the bottom. This makes room for extra batteries or components. Make sure all gas is out before cutting Reference your owners manual often during any electric motorcycle conversions so that you don't cut any necessary wires, and try to sell some of the parts to help pay for this electric motorcycle conversion project.

Next, make cardboard mock ups of all of your batteries and electronic components to see how and where things are going to fit. Take a look at my electric motorcycle conversions pictures to see how I fit everything, believe me that taking the time to make accurate cardboard mock ups is well worth the effort. Now for the hard part. You need a secure battery box and electric motorcycle motor mount for any electric motorcycle conversion. I had a friend weld it up for me and he did a fantastic job. From the photos you can see that he first strung up the electric motorcycle motor to allow for minor adjustment to be made before cutting the electric motorcycle motor mount plate.

After that was cut he made a nice chain and sprocket enclosure with a door and welded them onto the frame. Next he fabricated the battery rack and gave each battery a swing arm closure to give a tight fit yet still allow me to get them out easily. Half inch foam padding spacers are between each battery to help cushion the stack--but believe me, they aren't going anywhere.

After you get your electric motorcycle motor mount and battery compartment all welded up, take some time to clean up the frame of your bike. I removed any rust spots and chipped paint that I could find. Then I used some metallic gray and black spray paint. This makes a world of difference and costs very little. I made a fake gas cap and ran the power cord from the charger up the frame and out the top.

Now that you have all of the welding done and your electric motorcycle frame looks great, let's install the electrical components and start wiring it up your electric motorcycle conversion. This depends on the electric motorcycle components you buy. See the manufacturers wiring diagrams. Double check all of your connections and tighten every bolt. Using a serial cable and laptop, tweak the electric motorcycle controller program for your riding preferences.

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Lastly, I got the electric motorcycle conversion bike inspected and insured. Be prepared for the dealership mechanics to swarm and hit you with a bunch of questions and jokes about failing the emissions test. I know these weren't step by step building instructions, but that's because of the complexity of this electric motorcycle conversion project and variables in component use. My intention was to give you the motivation to build your own by seeing how I did it and make it easier by supplying the electric motorcycle parts list and a wiring diagram.

Think about the names given to electric cars and electric motorcycles on the market today. Most, if not all, are a play on the concept of all-electric, zero tailpipe emissions travel. Retro Styled, Classic Charm. Either that, or a working prop from a film set in a post-appocolyptic future, Mel Gibson optional. Unless you look at it closely, it doesn't immediately appear electric.

But as many classic motorcycle fans will tell you, good looks and a tough name will only get a motorcycle so far. Using some basic math, we think that translates to a battery capacity of between 4 and 5 kilowatt-hours. Forbidden Fruit? According to Bell, that should happen some time this year, provided current deals being discussed with various parts and manufacturing companies are signed. But right now, the all-electric beast is nothing more than an impressive prototype motorcycle awaiting production.

But convincing someone to trade in their Harley for an electric motorcycle? That could be more challenging. There has to be an element of cool. And speed. Which is what two Purdue University students and AllCell Technologies set out to produce — and appear to have delivered, with an electric motorcycle that packs 72 kilowatts of power and, according to early tests, can hit mph and cover miles on a charge, according to AllCell. The company said the trick to creating this high-performance bike was in the The phase change material graphite composite PCM-graphite controls the impact if one cell has an internal short circuit, and the PCM material absorbs and distributes heat away from the battery, protecting the cells and maximizing battery life.

Apart from the battery, electric vehicle experts Tesla Motors and Delphi Corporation also provided support for the project, AllCell said. This team is not alone in the quest for the superior electric motorcycle motor. While the motor puts out about 28 horsepower, it feels like much more, especially when accelerating from a standstill. In the open class is a modified production electric motorcycle called the GPR-S. This conversion is based on an R1 race chassis. Electric Motorsport is a technology company that specializes in Light Electric Vehicles and electric propulsion systems.

Electric Motorsport is proud to say they have supplied electric drive systems and components to many of the TTXGP teams that will be competing. Why does Electric Motorsport supply its competitors with hi-performance electric drive components? Electric motorsport Founder and CEO Todd Kollin says "its mainly to promote the technology and to have some one to race with, and besides we are in the parts business. Racing is just the fun part and its not much fun without competition.

Electric Motorsport Inc has always placed an emphasis on the Electric motorcycle as away of using renewable energy such as solar, wind, hydroelectric, and geothermal to propel ourselves from one location to the next. The company has sold 's of electric motorcycle conversion kits. Electric Motorsport even sells books on how to convert your old gas motorcycle to electric. These conversions are great if you have a old bike that does not run so well or has a blown engine.

An electric conversion can bring the thing back to life but without having to deal with oil, gas, noise, fumes, warm ups,tune ups, gear boxes, clutches. So Honda is getting into the electric motorcycle biz huh? Motorcycle News via our friends at AutoBlogGreen says Honda is serious about building a workable Ebike and selling it to the likes of you and me by Sure, that sounds plausible. Honda has the engineering grunt and it pretty much has the whole motorcycle thing down, so it seems like a lead pipe cinch.

Not exactly. Honda faces the same hurdles everyone else does: range and recharge times. I spent some time with an outfit made electric scooters and motorcycles. It was a real geeky operation making scooters and souped-up jobs custom-built to customers' needs, desires and checkbooks. Once or twice a year someone with sacks of money would come in and say something along the lines of "Take my GSX-R and make it electric. Then you'd stop. And then you'd have to plug it in for six or eight or 10 hours. The bike was cool, but not very practical.

You couldn't take the thing up some canyon road on your way out of town to Palm Springs for a three day weekend. These will be the same limitations that Honda will face, but in a couple of not so noticeable ways, electric motorcycles play to Honda's strengths. For one, bikes are easy. They're small, light and easy to work on. You can fab up and try things on two or three test mules in an afternoon, and that's an order of magnitude or so harder with cars. For another, Honda is a bike company. Yeah, I know, tell that to Ayrton Senna and Alain Prost and Ron Dennis, but it started out primarily as a bike company OK, go back far enough and it started out as a piston ring company, but still What Honda learns from making an Ebike over the next two years can, hopefully, migrate to cars.

Pound for pound and dollar for dollar motorcycles are the best bet for enthusiast fun. Not for me, of course, because I am comically and frighteningly uncoordinated and that's never a good thing on a motorcycle. But you get my point. Think of what Honda is doing as a real world proof of concept scheme. Make an electric motorcycle. Make it work. Make it work better. Then import the technology into a car.

Repeat the process. If you can soup up a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle EV , what features would you want? For some fleet managers, turning plug-in hybrids into a source for powering up construction tools or buildings during a blackout is high on the list. The utility, the largest in California, envisions sending a bunch of these trucks into the field for routine maintenance work and to deal with emergencies.

EV motors. Hybrid cars offer fuel savings over time — the price of gasoline has risen and will continue to increase at greater rates than the price of electricity — as well as environmental benefits such as lower emissions, he said.

It eliminates the need for buying portable generators that run on fossil fuels, for example. VIA has developed a powertrain that includes a 24 kilowatt-hour lithium-ion battery pack, which can last up to 40 miles per charge. The gasoline engine is for generating electricity to run the electric car motor , which moves the wheels. The company is putting its technology in brand new vehicles only, not used cars. The trucks are the early version of what VIA plans to produce commercially later this year, Meisel said. The utility also is considering vehicles from Electric Vehicle International , which turns beefier pickup trucks to plug-in hybrids.

Figuring out a good way to cool the equipment that generates and routes the power becomes a greater hurdle as the size of exportable power increases. EV motors But that day will come if consumers continue to show interest in electric cars and the prices for them drop. This time an initiative will make downtown the hometown for owners of electric vehicles EV. As only the third known location in Delaware County, Media has inaugurated a charging station in the municipal parking lot next to the Media Fire Department, across from Media-Upper Providence Library and one block from all that State Street has to offer.

The borough is participating in a pilot project for EV charging powered by percent Pennsylvania wind energy. Borough officials and Community Energy, Inc. While the technology includes several cutting-edge elements, charging station operation is fairly simple: pull into the dedicated parking space lot is between Jasper and Front streets just east of Jackson Street ; plug the electric vehicle EV into the charger; dine, shop or attend to other borough business.

In the span of an hour or two, EVs can be charged enough for at least several dozen miles. At the government level, Media has been a leader in environmental sustainability. This is a great location for residents and visitors. To kick off the enterprise, he drove a Chevrolet Volt and hooked it up to demonstrate the virtual plug, charge and go technique.

Representatives from Thomas Chevrolet brought a second Volt. Amy Ercolani of Thomas said the dealership has sold several Volts, has one in stock, and expects the manufacturer to supply a small but steady stream of the model, which has a gasoline back-up capability. EVs are available from other automotive manufacturers as well.

Running at a volt service, the public station works twice as fast as a charge from, for example, a home outlet which is generally half the volts. The mileage value of a charge varies depending on the electric vehicle and road conditions, not unlike gas mileage. General Motors will be collaborating with Spanish energy company Iberdola on a feasibility study to determine the infrastructure needs to support electric car motor vehicles in Europe. Similar studies are underway already between automakers and utility companies in the United States and elsewhere.

Under examination will be the needs for private, residential, and commercial customers as well as for publicly-accessible electric vehicle plugs. Among the issues that need to be resolved are how rates will be determined for EV electric vehicle charging and billing mechanisms. The study will be focused in Spain and the UK. Today on CNBC , Chrysler CEO Bob Nardelli revealed a Tesla -like all-electric performance sports car called the Dodge ev along with three other vehicles operating either partially or entirely on an electric powertrain. The four vehicles are Chrysler's ENVI electric car motor program, and include an extended -electric Chrysler minivan, a new "gated community" electric called "the peapod" and a Jeep Wrangler four-door.

And why shouldn't it? Which draws more juice from the electric grid, a big-screen plasma television or recharging an EV electric vehicle? The answer is the car. But the electricity draw by plasma televisions is easing the minds of utility company executives across the nation as they plan for what is likely to be an electric car conversion of much of the country's vehicle fleet from gasoline to electricity in the coming years. Rechargeable cars, industry officials say, consume about four times the electricity as plasma TVs.

But the industry already has dealt with increased electric demand from the millions of plasma TVs sold in recent years. Officials say that experience will help them deal with the vehicle fleet changeover to EV's. So as long as the changeover from internal combustion engines to electric vehicles is somewhat gradual, they should be able to handle it in the same way, Mark Duvall, program manager for electric transportation, power delivery and distribution for the Electric Power Research Institute, said Tuesday.

They said, 'All right, that's what's happening. This is where the loads are going, and we're going to do this. Automakers, such as General Motors and To yota , are planning to bring EV motors to the market as early as But speakers at the Plug-In conference say it will take much longer for them to arrive in mass numbers, due in part to a current lack of large-battery manufacturing capacity.

Read More. Electric cars or EVs electric vehicles have been around for almost years, but it's not just the limitations of battery power that have thwarted their more widespread use. Since Scottish businessman Robert Anderson pioneered the first electric carriage in the s, most EV's have lacked one of the key markers of auto success: good looks. Now two new models show that green can be given a devastatingly cool makeover. Britain's Lightning GT and the U. The Lightning GT - unveiled at London's International Motor Show last week and set to be available from the end of - sports an impressive, sleek and sexy design, drawing on Aston Martin's classic British look.

Tesla, which launched its hot, little open-top two-seater a couple of years ago, has already sold out of the model and is eagerly taking reservations for Battery power has rarely, if ever, looked this good. Larry Horsley loves that he doesn't buy much gas, even though he drives his '95 Chevy S back and forth to work each day. Electric Car Conversion. Horsley, a self-described do-it-yourselfer, simply plugs his EV motor electric vehicle truck into an electric wall outlet in his Douglasville, Georgia, garage and charges it overnight, instead of buying gasoline refined from mostly imported oil.

Using electric motor conversion kit s , many hobbyists are doing the same thing. Both Horsley and Kennington are fed up. They're among a growing number of Americans who are refusing to wait for big-car manufacturers to deliver a mainstream electric car , called EVs. Not only have they rebelled against the status quo by ripping out their gas-guzzling engines and replacing them with a zero-emission electric car motor , they say just about anyone can do an electric car conversion.

TreeHugger has recently covered the Solar Sailor and solar-powered electric bike , but we've never seen anything quite like this. Most of the models are somewhere between a scooter and a golf cart, and, according to the pictures on the site, they even work! It may not be the kind of thing you'd want to take on the highway or even a busy street, but they seem perfect for putting around town.

The site has all the info you'll need to build your own, from wheels to solar cells to frames, so you can get yourself around using the power of the sun. To start: Electric motors- AC vs. DC I'll just put this plainly- you can't use an AC motor in a go-kart. The reason is that AC is different from AC. AC stands for 'Alternating Current" and is what comes out of your wall socket.

It's used because it transmits long distances better along wires from the power plant to you and doesn't electrocute people quite so badly. DC stands for 'Direct Current' and is what comes out of a battery. It's plain electricity, and it's what you want to use for a go kart. An AC motor needs this. Now, it is possible to make AC out of DC. Most people have seen inverters, which you can plug into you car's cigarette lighter and then plug in a laptop, blender, whatever. Why not just use one of those?

The answer is current, and power. For a good electric go-kart, your power demands are going to be around watts or more. Because of surge current. An electric motor is an 'inductive' load. Have you ever seen your kitchen lights dim when the refrigerator or microwave comes on? That's because those are both inductive loads, and inductive loads require a TON of power to start. Say some electric motor might need watts when its running- to start under load like a go-kart does it might need or watts to start.

Your watts kart motor starting under load might need watts. Go price a watter inverter. Yeah, you don't want to do that. You might think that maybe you can make it work even though some people say it's a bad idea- trust me, I'm one of those people who chases down bad ideas to see what will happen.

Don't even bother. That means don't bother with any motor marked AC or which comes out of a washing machine, belt sander, or anything that plugs in to the wall. There are two exceptions to this: treadmills and really loud power tools. Loud power tools like angle grinders and circular saws use a motor called a 'universal motors' which can operate on either AC or DC. I wouldn't use either a treadmill or universal motor either. Why not? They are made for 90 to volts in the US and not very powerful. While a treadmill motor might seem like it's powerful, consider that you're going to have to carry around at least seven batteries of car battery size to get enough voltage and power.

It's the same as with the inverter- technically possible, but as a DIY go-kart maker, it's not what you want. OK, that's all bad news. What's the good news? Well, there are plenty of DC electric go cart motors out there perfect for go-karts. What should you look for in a DC electric go cart motors? Low voltage. The lower the voltage, the fewer batteries you have to carry around. Also, if the rated voltage is lower, you can overvolt the motor, which gives you more power. Say you get a 24v motor- you could run it on 36v and get a lot more power. Could you run it on 48v Well, putting that extra voltage in a electric go cart motor causes extra current to flow, which is where your power comes from.

This is a problem because the more current that flows, the hotter the motor gets- and when it gets too hot, it will burn up, explode, and leave you standed. What happens is that the insulation in the electric go cart motor is rated for a certain lifetime say 20 years at a low temperature. Trailer manufacturers are not owned by or related with tractor companies, and trailer aerodynamic-device manufacturers constitute yet a third layer of unaligned companies. For the most part it falls to the carriers themselves to sort through the emerging aerodynamic devices to find the most cost effective solutions.

Table gives a partial summary of supplier-reported information obtained from responses to a committee questionnaire 4 see Figures to Data are typically reported from SAE J full-vehicle tests, in mpg improvement. However, individual testing procedures are not consistent, average test speeds differ, and it is not known whether the statistical requirements of the test procedure are consistently adhered to.

Also, the data are not adequate to conclude that benefits achieved by combining aerodynamic devices would be completely additive. In a section below, results from a combination of devices are presented, and these results show that simple addition of individual results does not provide the correct result. Note that the combined effects of several aerodynamic features Full Package, in Figure provide an average fuel consumption reduction of 9.

The full package includes the partial gap filler, full or partial trailer skirt, and base flaps base fairings and boat tails. Further, if it is assumed that individual performances at the 75th percentile would eventually be achieved by , then the combined full package of partial gap, full skirt, and base flaps would be This result is derived through a method of multiplication of fuel consumptions reductions. One trailer manufacturer, Wabash National Corp. Reported results indicate that a fuel consumption reduction of about 8 percent at 65 mph may be achievable with this process. The 8 percent is net savings, after accounting for the energy to pressurize the required plenum, Englar, , p.

Such a system would need to be integrated into the trailer design for effective packaging, including compatibility with loading docks. One trailer aerodynamics manufacturer, AT Dynamics, has recently initiated development for a production-viable active flow control system for trailer rear edges.

The cost and complexity of a pneumatic blowing system would be a substantial challenge to production implementation. Currently, the trailer-to-tractor ratio is about 2. Most larger trucking companies report individual ratios ranging from about 1. One large private carrier reported a trailer-to-tractor ratio exceeding 8 Transport Topics , This reality adds to the difficulty of adding aerodynamic devices within normal and favorable capital acquisition metrics, such as net present value NPV.

The NPV for trailer skirts is strongly dependent on fuel prices and can easily exceed a 3-year zero-cost hurdle at a 2. The retrofit of trailer aerodynamic devices might be a useful fuel-savings strategy, due to the long lifetime of highway trailers, which is 20 years or more, as a result of their low on-road utilization compared to tractors. Another cost-effectiveness issue is the fact that trailer aerodynamic improvements in duty cycles with low average speeds must be judged as a particularly poor value.

For example, the fuel consumption benefit decreases by nearly 90 percent if the average speed is 30 mph rather than 60 mph see Figure Since damage in normal vehicle operation is a major issue with aerodynamic features, virtually all reporting skirt developers have placed a high priority on ensuring that their designs are significantly road damage tolerant. Many have video clips on their Web sites showing resistance to railroad grade crossing humps, steep loading dock accesses, and snow accumulation or snow piles, as well as low-speed collisions with equipment such as fork-lift trucks.

Nevertheless, caution is appropriate, as a proliferation of such low-hanging devices may create a new source of on-road hazards similar to tire tread sections today. One manufacturer, AdamWorks,. Trailer Aerodynamic Component Performance. The fuel consumption reduction of the combined technology packages is calculated multiplicatively not additively according to the following equation:. Nose Cone is a registered trademark. This strategy permits close proximity of the bottom of the skirt to the road which enhances its high-speed performance while avoiding deployment under more hazardous low-speed conditions.

Aerodynamic features may also provide safety benefits unrelated to their primary purpose of saving fuel. There are numerous testimonials that trailer skirts and boat tails substantially improve trailer tracking stability, especially in crosswinds, and significantly reduce road spray from trailer tires.

One trailer skirt manufacturer, Laydon, claims that its devices have been verified to comply with the European heavy truck side under-ride regulation. Boat tails can add up to lb to the trailer. Simulations have shown that about 1, lb of incremental truck weight incurs about 0. For operators running at the legal weight limit, payload is reduced by any empty weight increase, causing a load-specific fuel consumption increase of 2.

Consideration should be given to allowing carriers to be permitted this increase in weight without penalty. Boat tails will also impose trailer length increases; again carriers should be permitted such length increase without penalty, even if the boat tail is structural. One boat tail manufacturer has advised receiving a U. Trailer skirts are often installed under the van, not exceeding a in.

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Some manufacturers have experimented with side skirts that cover the trailer bogie and also the tractor bogie. As these are usually non-structural components, it is believed they are permitted within the current width regulation, up to in. Potential issues include docking in narrow confines and drivers who are unaccustomed to a truck that is potentially 2 in.

The gap between the tractor rear face and the trailer front face is filled with large vortices at high road speed. The conditions worsen with oblique wind direction, which causes more air to get into the gap between the tractor and trailer, increasing trailer drag. The average wind velocity throughout the 48 contiguous states is 7 mph. This results in prevailing effective yaw angles of 7 to 11 degrees on the East and West coasts, and up to 14 degrees in the Midwest.

Such conditions combine to increase drag by 30 to 55 percent on tractor trailers Wood, , pp. The considerable air turbulence in the gap has been ameliorated by the use of cab extenders. Manufacturers typically recommend that a gap not to exceed 30 inches, as measured from the trailing edge of the extender to the trailer face. Indeed, cab extenders are integral to the SmartWay specification.

Several developers have prototyped partial and even complete gap closure devices, with somewhat limited improvement in system performance 1 percent fuel savings for full gap closure on an SAE J test at 65 mph; TMA, , pp. One developer combined three design elements to manage the gap flows: a smoothed tractor underside from bumper to back of engine , a vertical airflow blocker on the front face of the trailer, and a significantly increased cab extension.

Together, these features achieved a 1. However, the effect of these features in the presence of a side wind which was not reported may be greater. There are a variety of current and former industry standard van-length trailers: ft trailers also ft , which are usually used as doubles, plus ft and ft trailers. It is expected that gap treatments and boat tails will perform on any length single trailer equally as well as with ft trailers.

Likewise, ft and ft trailers equipped with skirts should have benefits only slightly smaller than the ft results. While single ft trailers surely can be equipped with skirts, data are not available to quantify that benefit. Further, it is expected that on double trailers some form of gap treatment between the two trailers would be effective, but again no data are available. There is some aerodynamic data for multiple trailers.

Cooper has reported results for standard trailers without aerodynamic treatments. These results, shown in Figure , compare a single ft trailer with ft doubles and a ft single. Note that these are C d data.



The ft doubles have a C d that is 33 percent greater than the single ft trailer, but only 17 percent greater than the single ft. These data suggest that there is a significant aerodynamic drag penalty for doubles, which is likely to increase under the effect of crosswinds. Cooper clarifies that, even though the double trailers have 33 percent higher drag than a single trailer, the freight capacity increases by percent both in terms of weight and cubic volume.

So the freight-hauling efficiency provides a net 38 percent drag reduction per unit freight quantity carried and thus a nearly 20 percent fuel consumption reduction per unit freight quantity Cooper, , p. Laydon Composites Ltd. These skirts included trailer and tractor axle skirts. The fuel consumption reduction of the combination shown in Figure is 9. These results are based on yaw averaged and weighted winds, using the National Aeronautics and Space Administration procedure for estimating consumption from the drag results.

While the dry van constitutes the largest portion of body styles in the U. The design of many of these non-dry vans is far less amenable to incorporation of all or even some of the aerodynamic devices found helpful on the dry van. Polk has provided a dataset for all trailers by body style for the state of Florida Table The results are summarized here as a surrogate for the national averages.

The trailer-face-mounted refrigeration unit will dictate different gap treatment solutions than those used with the dry van. The refrigeration unit requires an airflow to provide engine combustion air, engine cooling air, and refrigeration condenser cooling air. On the other hand, the refrigeration unit itself may provide an aerodynamically significant reduction in drag, by virtue of providing some vortex control and associated pressure increase on the tractor rear face. Of course, the trailer skirt and trailer base areas are similar to those on a dry van, so similar aerodynamic features can be used.

Freight Wing, Inc. This trailer body style is among the most problematic of the semitrailer family because the space above the deck carries an endless assortment of products and implements, many with grossly unsymmetrical geometries. The trailer skirt area is judged to be as amenable to aerodynamic treatment as the dry van.

One trailer aerodynamics supplier, Freight Wing, has fitted a flatbed with a skirt but has not yet tested the configuration. Note that the trailer model in Figure also has a spread axle, which somewhat complicates skirt addition and may limit its potential effectiveness. Hart and C. Salter, committee member, June 2, This body style appears substantially similar to a van trailer. A removable container box is attached to a skeleton chassis consisting of a frame, a king pin, and an axle bogie. The difference from an aerodynamic point of view is that this style is equipped with square corners and many external ribs.

These ribs provide the requisite strength to the container box to deal with the handling forces when loaded containers are lifted on and off the chassis frame but also can add to the trailer C d see Figure The trailer skirt area is judged to be amenable to aerodynamic treatments, similar to those of the dry van.

One trailer aerodynamics supplier, Freight Wing, has fitted a container chassis with a skirt but has not yet tested the configuration see Figure Unfortunately, typical empty-chassis handling and stowage practices will put trailer skirts at high risk of damage. Since tanker trailers are normally operated at the maximum legal weight limit, the design is constrained to achieve minimum tare weight within the structural demands of the unit.

Further, the rear shape of the leading tractor poorly matches the trailer face in aerodynamic terms. Standard high-roof sleepers or day cab air deflectors are too high for tanker-trailer applications. Trailer skirts can be fitted as the dry van. One trailer aerodynamics supplier, Freight Wing, has fitted a tank trailer with a skirt, but has not yet tested the configuration see Figure Because any weight added for aerodynamics will reduce the load that a tanker can carry, these features are not likely to be financially attractive to any operator unless regulatory allowances are made.

The population of this body style is relatively small. This design style also has a complex nonaerodynamic array of structural tubes deploying the moving floors. Interestingly, one transport company, Precision Motor Transport Group PMTG , has created a variety of trailer configurations incorporating curtain sides, rounded noses, and boat tails.

This carrier specializes in transport of upscale sedans, and the auto capacity is inferior to the more standard designs. The aerodynamic performance must be substantially superior to the traditional design, but no data are available at this time. At least two companies, Edscha Trailer Systems and Sturdy-Lite, market a rolling tarp system that allows any conventional flatbed or lowboy trailer to be converted into a van-style unit and back to a flatbed in minutes. The system works by rolling the fabric tarp on a track that is attached to the side of the trailer. No aerodynamic performance data are available at this time, and a great deal of testing would be required to determine the benefits of this approach compared to normal loading of freight on a flatbed, since so many freight configurations are possible.

Notice that the Sturdy-Lite solution incorporates a full-height vertical nose plate, where many flatbed trailers have none, and a rear curtain frame see Figure In , Walmart initiated a program with a stated goal of doubling the fuel economy of its then 7,tractor private carrier fleet from 6. Collaborating with suppliers Peterbilt and Great Dane, evaluated components included an ft 6-in.

Walmart reports a 12 percent improvement in fuel economy with this first-generation package of components and design alterations, using the SAE J test procedure. Interestingly, the trailer height reduction of 12 in. Components still being evaluated in subsequent generations include a hybridized diesel-electric system and auto-deploying trailer skirts. As part of the TMA-DOE collaborative study on tractor-trailer aerodynamics, Mack Trucks studied the separate and combined effects of the three aerodynamic technologies shown in Figure The three features were a ft long trailer skirt with 9-in.

The performance of this combined set of features was evaluated using the SAE J on-road procedure at 65 mph. A fuel consumption reduction of 7. While the test parameters met all the precision criteria of the procedure, the prevailing winds and yaw conditions were not reported. The DOE has selected Navistar International Corporation Fort Wayne, Indiana for the month project with a goal to design, demonstrate, and bring to market a tractor-trailer combination and tire package that can reduce the fuel consumption of a heavy vehicle by at least 15 percent.

Following development, a commercial fleet will evaluate the benefits of the new technology package through real-world use. After the term of the project, the team members will make this fuel-efficient technology package available for sale. Trucks with box van bodies are most amenable to the solutions found on van trailers.

Many straight trucks operate in urban and suburban settings, where aerodynamic treatments are unlikely to offer a significant fuel savings, but those few straight trucks used routinely in highway operations could see significant benefits. One trailer aerodynamics manufacturer, Freight Wing, has fitted skirts to a van body straight truck, but no performance data are available see Figure Because of their frequent high-speed operation, some motor coaches may benefit significantly from aerodynamic drag reduction.

As such, the estimates of motor coach aerodynamic drag reduction potential in this report are based on extending results of the line-haul analysis to the motor coach segment see Table The following approaches were considered for optimizing the aerodynamics of the tractor trailer: cab streamlining, boat tailing, underbody treatments, gap treatments, wheel fairings, removal of the mirrors, and active flow control. Of these, gap treatments are clearly not applicable to motor coaches; and given the already-low ride height, skirts and underbody treatments likely do not offer a significant benefit.

Active flow control has not yet been demonstrated; moreover, it is most beneficial on streamlined, as distinguished from bluff, bodies Salari, personal communication, Of the remaining options, cab streamlining and boat tails would appear to offer the best prospects for reducing aero-. Boat tails on a tractor trailer are assumed to reduce drag by 6 to 9 percent and to offer fuel consumption benefits of 3 to 5 percent. Additional cab streamlining in the line-haul segment is estimated to reduce drag by 6 to 8 percent and to reduce fuel consumption by 3 to 4 percent.

Given the very low manufacturing volumes for motor coaches, the committee expects that actual costs are likely to be higher. In general, Class 2b vehicles have form factors similar to that of their smaller counterparts considered in the NHTSA rulemaking, which suggests that this is a reasonable approximation.

The NHTSA rulemaking considered underbody treatments; streamlined hood, windshield, fenders, and grill; reduced ride height analogous to trailer side skirts ; low-drag side mirrors; optimized airflow pathways; and wheels or wheel wells. As in heavy trucks, this level of drag reduction is assumed to result in a 4 to 5 percent reduction in fuel consumption see Table Caution is necessary in the use of these fuel consumption estimates since they apply to a 60 to 65 mph average speed.

At speeds below 40 mph, the benefit becomes insignificant. These cost estimates were applied independent of vehicle class, so no adjustment was applied to translate these to Class 2b vehicles. TIAX, in its report for the committee, summarized the aerodynamic fuel consumption potential reduction by time frame and application see Table The committee believes the potential for aerodynamic improvement for the tractor-trailer application is under-. In to a 9 percent reduction in fuel consumption is achievable versus 5. In to a 15 percent reduction in fuel consumption is achievable versus This estimate is based on improved full-package trailer performance as described in Figure , plus a next-generation tractor performance of 3 to 4 percent see Table These two performance values are combined and confirmed by the method of multiplication of consumptions.

Also, the committee has recognized the Class 6 Box Truck aerodynamic design features in Table that are currently available for implementation and has adopted them in Table to report a 3 percent fuel consumption reduction for the to period. The 3 percent fuel consumption reduction is achievable provided that such box trucks have an average speed significantly higher than the 30 mph typical for pick-up and delivery duty.

At a 30 mph average, the fuel consumption would be about 1 percent. In addition to driving the wheels, power from the engine cylinders is used for many requisite auxiliary loads. The power to operate these systems comes from the engine cylinder and represents a use of fuel energy for functions other than putting power to the wheels.

The power required for running the coolant pump, fuel pump, and lubricating pumps is classified under the category of accessories, as shown in Figure Estimates that approximately 1. Tables , , and show the power consumption for auxiliaries for different vehicles operating under representative operating conditions. The power consumed by auxiliaries can be significant, approximately 25 percent of the total power in the case of a transit bus with the air conditioner operating. The extent to which these auxiliaries are used is very dependent on the vehicle and its duty cycle, as shown in Tables and Duleep, Energy and Environmental Analysis.

Improvement in these auxiliary systems and the use of electric drives instead of direct mechanical drives from the engine offer potential to reduce fuel consumption. However, the fuel consumption reduction will be very application specific. Also, it is important to realize that reducing the mechanical power requirement from the engine to drive auxiliaries will not necessarily be a one-to-one reduction in fuel consumption.

To gain the maximum benefit from reducing auxiliary power requirements and optimizing their operation, the engine will need to be re-optimized for the new duty cycle. This will need to be done for each vehicle application under consideration. However, it is technically feasible to save a portion of this 2. Tire rolling resistance accounts for roughly one-third of the power required to propel a line-haul truck at highway speeds on level roads Bradley and Nelson, ; Kenworth, The force resisting a rolling tire is primarily due to the inelastic cyclic tire deformation when rolling and the shear and compressive forces at the contact patch.

The resistive force has been found to be nearly linearly proportional to the load on the tire, and hence it is convenient to define a coefficient of rolling resistance, C rr , as follows:. For a given tire, C rr is mildly dependent on temperature, tread wear, and velocity LaClair, , which would need to be accounted for in vehicle models and must be considered in on-road comparative testing.

Inflation pressure has a pronounced impact on C rr , as does wheel alignment slip angle. Opportunities for managing these items are discussed below, along with tire technology. C rr is highly dependent on tire technology, and large reductions in C rr have been seen in the past few decades. C rr is dimensionless, with typical values for modern truck tires of 0. The historical trend in C rr reduction as presented by Melson is shown in Figure As seen in Figure , dual tires span a range of C rr and can also qualify as low rolling resistance per the SmartWay definition.

Replacement of typical dual tires with NGWBS tires can give fuel economy improvements approaching 10 percent for combination trucks, based on modeling as well as real-world studies LaClair, ; Capps et al. Furthermore, U. EPA studies Bachman et al. The range of fuel economy improvements from tests is 5 to 10 percent, influenced by the vehicle type, driving cycle, and baseline tire see Figure Tire rolling resistance is further impacted noticeably by wear tread depth , an additional variable in test results Goodyear, , p.

An additional confounding factor to test would be the amount of circumference mismatch in dual tires to minimize scrubbing losses. Typical results from a modeling study of a Class 8 truck show how the impact of tire C rr varies depending on drive cycle and load see Table Modest further reductions in C rr are projected.

Melson shows the C rr of trailer tires in particular is expected to drop slightly below 0. Despite recent advances in tire technology, it should be noted that NGWBS tires, which provide the lowest levels of C rr , are presently not available in tire dimensions used on many Class 3 to 6 vehicles, and tires with the very lowest rolling resistance levels may not be practical for all applications. Tires, like most products, must satisfy a range of performance criteria e. For example, tires designed for optimal mud or.

Through collaboration with industry, EPA determined a typical C rr for Class 8 truck tires and determined a level of improvement that was technically feasible, then worked with industry to establish a voluntary performance threshold, approximately 15 percent above typical, which is expected to provide a 3 percent or greater reduction in fuel consumption relative to the best-selling tires.

Every major original equipment manufacturer of new commercial truck tires now offers at least one model of tire that meets this voluntary performance requirement. Courtesy of Michelin North America. This generally provides a tire with a higher C rr than for tires with lower void content, since the reduced rigidity results in increased tread rubber deformation, in both compression and sheer, thereby increasing the hysteretic losses responsible for rolling resistance.

Particular needs for individual consumers and tire uses will make it very challenging to have uniformly low rolling resistance for all vehicle applications, and it is likely that some vehicle applications will always use tires with C rr values greater than the lowest levels available on the market. Also, fleet operating practices of running out partially worn tires from steer and drive axles on the trailer will often result in less than fully optimized rolling resistance at different stages of tire life.

And even in long-haul vehicles, the practice of retreading steer tires which legally cannot be operated on the steer axle after retreading will assure that nearly 10 percent or more of tires in use will always be dual tires. Finally, retreaded tires generally have a somewhat higher level of rolling resistance than new tires. These factors must be taken into consideration when establishing any regulation regarding tire rolling resistance, and it should be well understood that fleet practices will have a very direct impact on the average level of rolling resistance for tires in actual use.

FIGURE New-generation wide-base single tire right to reduce the rolling resistance of conventional dual tires left. Bradley and S. Courtesy of Michelin Tire North America. Recent proposals have been made to create a tire fuel efficiency rating system for replacement tires and to allow point of sale information to be displayed to inform consumers of the role that tires have on fuel efficiency. The approach is similar to the Energy Star program and EnergyGuide labeling used for household appliances and other products.

The NHTSA proposed rulemaking proposes to require tire manufacturers to rate the fuel efficiency of their tires using the International Organization for Standardization ISO standardized test method for tire rolling resistance measurement. The tire industry has been working recently to develop this test standard, which is applicable to new passenger car, truck, and bus tires. EPA is considering this same standardized test method for future SmartWay definitions.

NGWBS tires also give a weight savings of roughly kg in a typical combination tractor-trailer rig, allowing for an increase in payload capacity, which can further improve freight efficiency. Various studies have been conducted recently to address these above concerns for NGWBS tires, however, and results have demonstrated performance similar to that of dual tires.

Furthermore, tire manufacturers have made efforts to minimize or mitigate any inconveniences that could be experienced on the road when using NGWBS tires. These tires are normally operated at elevated service inflation pressures, with consequently reduced tire footprint size and peak tire-road contact stresses that surpass those of traditional tires. Although differences have been observed in various metrics of roadway stresses for dual and NGWBS tires, pavement damage is expected to be similar for these two types of tires for primary roads Al-Qadi, a,b. For safety concerns, testing has shown that rapid air loss events on NGWBS tires do not compromise the stability and behavior of the vehicle Bradley and Nelson, Additionally, rollover performance with NGWBS tires has been shown to be similar to or improved relative to dual-tire rollover performance Knee et al.

Regarding flat tires, a vehicle cannot continue driving with a flat NGWBS tire without risking serious damage to the tire and wheel. Although it may be possible to continue to drive a vehicle for tire replacement if one dual tire goes flat, this practice is not recommended and may not be legal. There currently exist some state restrictions on NGWBS tire use where a state oversize or overweight permit is required for vehicle operation.

These restrictions are premised on the studies of the original series single tires. Furthermore, the use of NGWBS tires in Canada may require a special permit to operate at the Canadian dual-tire maximum load of 9, kg per axle in some provinces. Rolling resistance is strongly affected by the pressure in a tire, increasing steadily as tire pressure decreases below the recommended inflation pressure.

For truck tires, rolling resistance can be expected to increase by about 5 to 8 percent for a 20 percent reduction in pressure. This will typically yield a 2 to 3 percent loss in fuel economy in a Class 8 truck if all tires are underinflated SmartWay; Goodyear, , p. While trucking fleets generally monitor tire pressure more frequently than do personal car owners, substantially underinflated tires are likely responsible for a relatively large level of unnecessary fuel consumption.

For passenger cars and light trucks, the NHTSA conducted a study following the passage of the Transportation Recall Enhancement, Accountability, and Documentation Act of in which tire pressure was measured on 11, cars and light trucks. The study found that 27 percent of passenger cars and 33 percent of light trucks have at least one tire significantly underinflated by 20 percent or more.

The level of underinflation on truck tires across the U. Given these facts, it is clear that tire pressure monitoring systems TPMSs can help improve the fuel consumption and safety of heavy trucks by ensuring that adequate pressure is maintained and, consequently that the rolling resistance is at the design level. There is already a moderate usage of TPMS in fleets, although a detailed quantification of the percentages of trucks equipped with TPMS is not available at this time.

Automatic tire inflation ATI systems are also commercially available that maintain tire pressure at the desired level. Use of nitrogen instead of air for tire inflation has been found to reduce pressure loss rate NHTSA, a. In static laboratory tests the inflation pressure loss for new tires inflated with nitrogen was approximately two-thirds of the loss rate of new tires inflated with air. Similar differences between nitrogen and air permeation rates in new tires were found under dynamic, loaded laboratory testing. This is attributed primarily to the higher diffusion rate of oxygen through rubber compared to nitrogen, which was observed and characterized decades ago.

In certain fleet operations the use of nitrogen fill would be effective in place of or in addition to TPMS and would lessen the need for ATI systems. The same NHTSA study reported that inflating tires with nitrogen in place of air had no direct effect on laboratory rolling resistance performance. Walmart reported to the committee that it found a 1. The alignment of each axle has a direct impact on rolling resistance. Camber effects, by comparison, are relatively small on rolling resistance, and the slip angle impact is thus the only alignment effect considered here.

For a given slip. An estimation of the impact of misalignment on fuel consumption can be made by assuming that the average misalignment on each wheel of the truck is approximately 0. This level is consistent with standard practices and recommendations for tandem axle alignment in the industry and typical toe settings. Based on a cornering stiffness of 3 kilonewtons kN per degree, the increase in rolling resistance per tire is about 0. Again assuming that rolling resistance accounts for about one-third of the mechanical energy needed to propel a long-haul truck, the average fuel economy impact is about 0.

Note that the quadratic dependence of rolling resistance on slip angle means that if the average slip angle is 0. In any case this analysis indicates that the loss in fuel economy on heavy trucks resulting from wheel alignment is on the order of 0. It should be noted once again that these estimates in fuel consumption are intended to provide only order-of-magnitude assessment and that the assumptions used to make this evaluation are generalizations and large variations can exist among different vehicles.

Given the large fuel use in Class 8 trucks, coupled with the large impact of rolling resistance, most information about tire effects has been quantified only for this class. Lower vehicle loads result in a reduction in the total rolling resistance, and the relative impact that tires have on fuel economy therefore decreases for vehicles with lower mass see estimates of relative energy losses among different vehicle applications in previous sections of this chapter.

Also, reductions in rolling resistance do not generate the same level of fuel savings for drive cycles that include frequent stops and starts as for drive cycles with minimal amounts of braking, at least for traditional vehicles that do not employ regenerative braking. As a result of these factors, the contribution of rolling resistance to truck fuel use is less in delivery trucks and still less in refuse haulers or buses, roughly 10 percent of total energy consumed the energy balances shown in Figure and in Chapter 4.

Hence, the potential improvements in truck fuel consumption are less for truck classes other than Class 8 line haul. As reported in site visits by the committee, the choice of low rolling resistance tire design for urban operation must consider the tire scrub caused by smaller turning radii. Increased probability of damage from curb impacts also was noted. Tires for refuse haulers are often designed for resistance to cuts and rough or soft terrain encountered at dump sites and would not likely have the lowest levels of C rr.

While the regulation would only apply to passenger car tires, this labeling can be voluntarily applied to tires for light trucks and Class 2b vehicles. The proposal for labeling stemmed from the Transportation Research Board NRC, study of passenger car tires, which concluded that a 10 percent reduction in rolling resistance was technically and economically feasible, and that this would improve fuel economy by 1 to 2 percent.

This is consistent with analysis available in the existing literature LaClair, The committee believes these findings are applicable to Class 2b pickups and vans. TIAX, in its report for the committee, summarized the rolling resistance fuel consumption potential reduction by range of years and by application in Table The committee believes that a lower C rr is achievable i. Truck weight empty weight plus payload weight affects fuel consumption gallons per mile primarily by reducing tire rolling resistance and unrecovered energy used when accelerating or grade climbing.

The energy needed to overcome these resistances is essentially linearly dependent on truck weight. Truck weight effects are more conspicuous and dominate fuel consumption over duty cycles with frequent stops and accelerations, or on roads with notable grade. As an illustration of the significance of powering a vehicle of 80, lb GVW, maintaining 50 mph on a mere 3 percent grade triples the engine power demand compared to a level road from hp on a level road to hp on the 3 percent grade; Caterpillar, Reducing the unloaded empty weight of the truck and trailer, at a fixed payload, always benefits the metric of gallons per payload ton-mile and directly reduces fuel consumption in gallons per mile.

Vehicles with maximum GVW loads may still operate at reduced loads on the same trip after off-loading at stops, to the extreme example of tankers running empty on a return trip. During reduced-load vehicle miles traveled, the fuel consumption gallons per mile will conspicuously improve with reduced weight.

For vehicles that are at maximum volume capacity, vehicle weight savings will always provide the more conspicuous reduction in fuel use. In considering the fuel-savings opportunity through light-weighting technology, it is necessary to review the empty truck weight, maximum payload, and then the typically used payload weight in commerce.

The range of truck weights and payload capacities is shown in Table Focusing on Class 8 combination trucks for now, more specifically, a representative Class 8 sleeper cab tractor will weigh 16, to 19, lb, and a van trailer nonrefrigerated will typically weigh about 14, lb. The distributions of weight among the major components of the tractor are shown in Figures and Smith and Eberle, How many trucks on the road are running at the maximum GVW and thus would benefit from lightweighting by increasing payload?

With the demise of the VIUS report, 9 the most recent data are derived from truck scale reporting and weigh-in-motion devices and reporting from surveyed fleets. Figures through show the distribution of truck weights on the road, again focused mostly on five-axle Class 8 combination trucks. Onder, personal communication, U. Department of Energy, May :.

These sources are consistent in concluding that a relatively modest fraction of trucks on the road are near the maximum GVW. Hence, with lightweighting technology, the reduction in fuel consumption will be very apparent as reduced gallons per mile and per ton-mile. As described elsewhere in this study, the truck weight impacts the power needed to propel the truck through rolling resistance, grade climbing, and accelerations. Clearly the duty cycle will influence the degree to which weight savings will reduce fuel consumption.

It is also expected that the impact of weight reduction as a percentage of fuel consumption depends on the base weight of the truck. For the heavier weight classes, a commonly used metric is the percentage change in fuel consumption per 1, lb of weight reduction. Data from a recent on-road study were analyzed to illustrate the impact of weight on real-world fuel consumption, shown in Figure It was discontinued in Bradley and Associates These data and similar information from numerous other sources are summarized in Table for a wide range of vehicle classifications.

Published tests on weight effects merely vary the payload for the most part and do not convey the potential fuel savings that could be achieved if engines were downsized or gear ratios changed. Typically, models are very effective and would be needed in examining those effects. Another advantage of weight reduction technology is the ability afforded the truck manufacturer to maintain the axleload limits imposed by regulation. There is a legal load limit of 34, lb for a tandem axle, and 20, lb for a single axle on interstate roads, without a special permit or some higher levels in specific states.

With the 80,lb limit for maximum gross weight on most U. Effect of weight on truck fuel economy for a monitored fleet of six trucks with combination of dual and wide single tires for a variety of drive routes. Trucks, trailers, and buses are benefiting from greater use of lightweight materials and structures. Components already making use of aluminum include the cab structure, wheels, fifth wheel, bellhousing, and more see Table Aluminum composite panels have been introduced on trailers, and the use of wood in trailers is diminishing.

The barrier to additional use of aluminum or carbon composites is primarily cost effectiveness, with carbon fiber composites, for example, costing several times more per unit mass than aluminum.