Check out these sweet friends, Reese and Miles conquer routines in 1 st grade.
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Thanks to Ms. Lehr, their teacher, for adding her own personal touch to the routines. You will notice that when they are done the same way, every day, anyone can do them. These student leaders have been coached, of course. These student leaders had sticky note prompts on the wall look closely and you might notice the first student leader quickly refer to it. See this video of some of my friends in first grade using microphones and script cards.
Of course, using the script cards involves some reading.
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In the beginning, you are whispering coaching each line to them. The script cards are used to help release you as the coach and to give them confidence. You may need to support student leaders with a reader helper. Long answer: But there are ways to keep it moving. First decide if students are truly fluent with the skills counting, making tens, etc. Consider adding in the ideas below. Next, move into Volume 2 routines. Instead of the student leader walking the class through 2 ways to show addition on the class whiteboard nd only , students bring their math boards to this part or go to their desks to show their own thinking on two ways they could do this addition.
The important part here is that students can continually make the proof picture and know when to regroup and when not to. Adding in this challenge will encourage flexibility with numbers. Regrouping, proof pictures, and the accessible algorithms are all great methods—but so is mental math and open number lines to think through adding friendly numbers.
Should we need a proof picture to add three? It is important that we build flexible math thinkers who can reason and adjust. Adding in this routine will take additional time, so perhaps you can save time in other places. Ask students to think about what the new total would be and how they know.
Use turn and talks to increase engagement and to generate ideas. S: Yes, I counted 67 raises a finger , 68 raises a second finger , etc.. Stops on five fingers Practice with the student. S: I took the five and I know we needed 4 more to make it to T makes math mountain on board. She writes 4 as one partner and 1 as the other. The 4 is in green, so she circles the 4 numbers 67, 68, 69, 70 in green. The 1 is in blue, so she circles the one more 71 in blue. What is too often missing in Christian teaching is the empowerment to live today free from the bondage of addiction, the pain of broken relationships and the condemnation of the devil.
We dream of a better tomorrow but old thinking keeps us from the changes needed to see that future become a reality.
In this book we will explore together the grace that God gives to live in the fullness of what Jesus did on the cross and who we are in Christ. Proposal 7-Sustainable Rural Development Zones. This is a very admirable proposal to combine environmental responsibility with economic opportunity.
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We totally agree with the objectives that economic development should not be at the expense of a quality environment. The two not only can but should go together.
On the other hand, we believe that bringing together various interest groups within a community in which economic development is to take place, so that all of the citizens will have a vested property stake in the outcome as CIC shareholders, will give these disparate groups at least one point of common reference besides being residents of the same general area. Hence, in the Community Investment Corporation, issues of planning environmental controls would be part of planning the building the new economy in the area, and all points of view could be taken into account.
In addition the CIC approach could address how to finance rapid rates of growth which are necessary to make these areas into viable economic areas while at the same time to avoid damaging non-replenishible natural resources. Good stewardship and good economics can go hand-in-hand. Proposal 8-Marketing Sustainable Rural America. Proposal 8 is an attempt to reconcile the conflict between those supporting traditional methods of agriculture and those seeking alternative agriculture.
This is a good proposal, mainly because it concedes that market forces can be very useful in financing organic agricultural products and other produce that might come from alternative agricultural development. This particular proposal focuses in on the enormous complexity and overlap among rural development programs at the Federal level.
As taxpayers and non-government employees, we could only support this kind of initiative. Proposal Addressing the Needs of Rural Homelessness. Certainly one of the most shameful things for people living in the affluent Washington Metropolitan Area is the enormous amount of homelessness evident in the streets of this city.
As this proposal points out, there is an incredible amount of homelessness throughout rural areas. This proposal offers a five-step initiative in finding ways to begin to meet this need. No one can quarrel with the need for improving housing for all Americans. This is a question of resources and clearly present budget deficits have diminished taxpayer funding available for meeting the needs of the homeless. How should we address this problem? The long-run answer is to begin to get America, and particular the rural areas with which we are concerned here today, growing rapidly without inflation in ways that offer marketable goods and services to the global marketplace.
A viable growth area also has to be able to add value and export something to the world, and from that it can increase its levels of income, jobs and ownership opportunities. Proposal Marketing and Manufacturing Networks. Here is a proposal in which USDA would use taxpayer funding to generate networks of enterprises in rural areas in order for them to help market their commodities. The major problem with this is that the free enterprise system, when it is operating vigorously, has little difficulty marketing whatever it can produce.
The problem is finding customers with adequate incomes. Consequently, it is crucial that we launch as soon as possible a national growth strategy i. This can be done in rural areas if we combine the natural comparative economic advantages of these low income rural areas i. Proposal Office of New Opportunities. This seems to be a proposal aimed at providing support services to the 1. We would support this initiative, because we recognize the great value the USDA has provided through its extension services and research programs for helping to raise the level of American agriculture to the enviable position that it enjoys today in world markets.
USDA should continue to be a source of information for all people who are directly or indirectly linked in with agriculture. ESOP Promotion. Control over credit can largely determine the patterns of investment by business enterprises. These devices would enable customers to acquire shares on credit repayable through patronage refunds and dividends. Utility customers would be able to reduce the overall cost of their service, from dividends and patronage refunds received through their CSOP shares.
As noted above in the paper, CESJ would recommend a year period to phase out the subsidy programs and substitute expanded ownership initiatives, targeting on the four regions recommended by the USDA development professionals. Capital Diffusion Reinsurance Fund. CDRFs offer a substitute for traditional collateralization requirements for enabling poor and working rural residents to acquire equity ownership in viable companies. The main point here is that people who have no savings have no collateral to offer lending institutions and are thereby automatically disqualified from receiving significant productive credit loans.
Professor Ashford points out that collateralization is required to insure lenders against the risk of default, in an amount over and above the productive assets that might be acquired with the loan. As the Ashford article points out, private insurers should be encouraged to come forward to offer loan default insurance for covering at least a portion of the principal loan to ESOPs, CICs, CSOPs and other mechanisms. This would enable poor and working citizens to acquire equity shares in productive enterprises which would be repayable with the future profits of the enterprises themselves.
But the fact that the beneficiaries have no savings means that commercial banks and other private lenders do not have an adequate incentive to provide loans to ESOPs and other expanded ownership mechanisms. Ashford makes a very sound case that if the government could provide a capital diffusion reinsurance fund, this would encourage the private insurers to come forward with commercial insurance to cover the risk of loan defaults. This would provide the equivalent of collateral, which a poor person or small business is almost always lacking.
CESJ would recommend that USDA explore ways in which some of its loan funds could be placed in reserve for the development of a capital diffusion reinsurance fund for the targeted rural development areas. This would have a very significant multiplier effect in attracting private sector loans. USDA should also examine the extent to which existing programs can be used for this purpose.
It might also seek a provision in the Farm Bill to request from Congress sufficient reserves to establish a capital diffusion reinsurance fund. This limitation on government exposure to risk would be radically different from most government-sponsored insurance funds e. Integrated Farmer and Worker-owned Agribusinesses. USDA should support limited experiments and demonstrations of methods which enable small farmers and landless rural workers to become shareholders in professionally managed agribusinesses serving global markets and provide income sources through jobs and ownership opportunities for non-farm families in rural communities.
The key for small farmers and workers without savings to acquire shares in competitive enterprises is to provide them with access to productive credit for purchasing these shares, using the funds 1 to restructure existing farming operations, 2 to attract top management and joint ventures with world-class agribusinesses, and 3 paying for the shares out of future profits, rather than reduced consumption incomes. The risk of default on share acquisition loans for people with little or no assets would be secured by the assets and credit-worthiness of the enterprises, future profits and dividends, corporate guarantees from strategic alliance partners, and a loan default reinsurance fund designed to attract lenders and insurers of share acquisition loans.
We would recommend that USDA establish one or more viable demonstration agribusinesses within which small farmers and landless workers can participate in majority ownership and profit sharing to supplement their present incomes. Such assistance would also help achieve crop diversification and rural development linked to the broadened capital ownership objective.
Other steps USDA could take to promote these integrated agribusiness demonstrations would include:. Analyzing existing legal, policy, political, labor and other barriers and disincentives to achieving expanded ownership objectives in rural areas, and developing specific reforms to be proposed aimed at overcoming these barriers and disincentives. Using the combination of i USDA commitment of support and assistance, ii the commitment of prestige and other inputs from interested agribusinesses to the proposed demonstration projects and to rural development generally, and iii specific proposals for market-oriented policy reforms, to persuade prime movers in government, banking and business how these demonstration projects can further the interests of all parties, and to gain their commitment to changes needed to remove legal and other roadblocks to the demonstration projects.
Identify groups of small farmers and associations of farm workers who might be willing to support the project and contribute their land, tools and services to help make the proposed agribusiness succeed, including by adopting more desirable farming practices. Offer participating land owners an opportunity to lease their property at attractive rates geared to the projected higher profits of the proposed agribusiness as an alternative to selling their land to the agribusiness and as a way to secure their family incomes during the transition to large-scale diversified farming.
The discount mechanism is the essence of central banking and should be restored as a means by which areas that today are dependent on outside savings pools can use the discount window in such a way that the allocation of credit is not done by the government or the Federal Reserve, but by local commercial banks that are members of the Federal Reserve System. Unfortunately when the U. In other words, instead of private sector assets being encouraged by the Federal Reserve System, the Federal Reserve turned exclusively to the purchase and sale of Treasury paper to finance the war effort.
As a consequence, the U. Instead, Treasury paper, or liabilities, stands behind U. We recommend strongly that this discount mechanism be opened as a way of increasing the volume of credit for facilitating private sector growth in rural areas. The farmers were requesting that the Federal Reserve seriously consider the reopening of its discount mechanism for helping to meet the onerous debt burdens of farmers who had to borrow at extremely high interest rates, just at the time that the grain trade with Russia was suddenly terminated because of the war in Afghanistan.
Clearly, farmers understand that the Federal Reserve could be doing a much better job in terms of generating low-cost credit for rural development. It should be noted that any funding made available through the Federal Reserve discount mechanism would be off-budget and would not be subject to the constraints of budget deficits, since no taxpayer dollars would be involved and no taxpayer subsidies would be used to keep interest rates low.
Interest rates would reflect the normal costs of borrowing money, including the risk of default. It should also be pointed out that the risk premium which is included in all interest rates could be converted into an actual insurance premium. Clearly, if this concept begins to show promise in the targeted rural areas, the rest of America, including urban and suburban areas, would also begin demanding availability of this mechanism.
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In no way would the discount mechanism be inflationary, since all increased currency and expanded bank loans would be supported by expanded productive assets in the economy. However, for those interested in delving deeper into the subject, we recommend that they read Curing World Poverty: The New Role of Property, pages , , , , and In a nutshell, the Capital Homestead program would enable every citizen to accumulate the industrial equivalent of acres of land, tax-free. Such a Capital Homestead stake would be capable of generating an income from capital sufficient to provide people an adequate and secure source of income, immune from the impact on family income security if the breadwinner dies or becomes permanently disabled and unable to provide labor inputs into the economy.