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Manual Interface

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In its most common form, an interface is a group of related methods with empty bodies.


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A bicycle's behavior, if specified as an interface, might appear as follows:. To implement this interface, the name of your class would change to a particular brand of bicycle, for example, such as ACMEBicycle , and you'd use the implements keyword in the class declaration:. Implementing an interface allows a class to become more formal about the behavior it promises to provide.

Interfaces form a contract between the class and the outside world, and this contract is enforced at build time by the compiler.

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Java Interfaces

Type Designer Type Designers. Commercial Projects. For function types to correctly type check, the names of the parameters do not need to match. We could have, for example, written the above example like this:. Function parameters are checked one at a time, with the type in each corresponding parameter position checked against each other. Here, also, the return type of our function expression is implied by the values it returns here false and true.

Indexable types have an index signature that describes the types we can use to index into the object, along with the corresponding return types when indexing. Above, we have a StringArray interface that has an index signature. This index signature states that when a StringArray is indexed with a number , it will return a string.

Interface Types | Flow

There are two types of supported index signatures: string and number. It is possible to support both types of indexers, but the type returned from a numeric indexer must be a subtype of the type returned from the string indexer. This is because when indexing with a number , JavaScript will actually convert that to a string before indexing into an object. That means that indexing with a number is the same thing as indexing with "" a string , so the two need to be consistent. This is because a string index declares that obj. However, properties of different types are acceptable if the index signature is a union of the property types:.

Finally, you can make index signatures readonly in order to prevent assignment to their indices:.

One of the most common uses of interfaces in languages like C and Java, that of explicitly enforcing that a class meets a particular contract, is also possible in TypeScript. You can also describe methods in an interface that are implemented in the class, as we do with setTime in the below example:.

How to declare an interface?

Interfaces describe the public side of the class, rather than both the public and private side. This prohibits you from using them to check that a class also has particular types for the private side of the class instance. When working with classes and interfaces, it helps to keep in mind that a class has two types: the type of the static side and the type of the instance side.

You may notice that if you create an interface with a construct signature and try to create a class that implements this interface you get an error:.

click here This is because when a class implements an interface, only the instance side of the class is checked. Since the constructor sits in the static side, it is not included in this check.

Java Reference

Instead, you would need to work with the static side of the class directly. In this example, we define two interfaces, ClockConstructor for the constructor and ClockInterface for the instance methods. Then, for convenience, we define a constructor function createClock that creates instances of the type that is passed to it:. Like classes, interfaces can extend each other.


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  8. This allows you to copy the members of one interface into another, which gives you more flexibility in how you separate your interfaces into reusable components.