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At this rate, he says, a computer as powerful as the human brain would require 1 gigawatt of power. I searched for the origin of this meme, and discovered Paul Valery , an early 20th century poet and essayist. He declared :. So to see if it was actually true, I asked Bill Leonard, an expert on the evolution of human brains at Northwestern University. If two rear fog lamps are fitted, they must be symmetrical with respect to the vehicle's centreline. Proponents of twin rear fog lamps say two lamps provide vehicle distance information not available from a single lamp. Proponents of the single rear fog lamp say dual rear fog lamps closely mimic the appearance of illuminated stop lamps which are mandatorily installed in pairs , reducing the conspicuity of the stop lamps' message when the rear fogs are activated.

To warn adjacent vehicle operators and pedestrians of a vehicle's rearward motion, and to provide illumination to the rear when backing up , [94] [95] [96] each vehicle must be equipped with one or two rear-mounted, rear-facing reversing [96] or "backup" [95] lamps. Those countries' regulations permitted the amber rear turn signals to burn steadily as reversing lights, so automakers and importers were able to combine the mandatorily amber rear turn signal and optionally amber reversing light function, and so comply with the regulations without the need for additional lighting devices.

The rear registration plate is illuminated by a white lamp designed to light the surface of the plate without creating white light directly visible to the rear of the vehicle; it must be illuminated whenever the position lamps are lit. Large vehicles such as trucks and buses are in many cases required to carry additional lighting devices beyond those required on passenger vehicles. The specific requirements vary according to the regulations in force where the vehicle is registered.

In the US, vehicles over 80 inches 2. The purpose of these lamps is to alert other drivers to the presence of a wide and usually, tall vehicle.

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UN Regulation 48 requires large [ vague ] vehicles to be equipped with left and right white front and red rear end-outline marker lamps, [21] which serve a purpose comparable to that of the American clearance lamp, i. US regulations require large North American vehicles to be equipped with left and right amber side marker lights and reflectors mounted midway between the front and rear side markers. Until about the s in France, Spain, Morocco, and possibly other countries, many commercial vehicles and some Soviet road trains from " Sovtransavto " had a green light mounted on the rear offside.

Also called "hazards", "hazard warning flashers", "hazard warning lights", "emergency lights", "4-way flashers", or simply "flashers".

International regulations require vehicles to be equipped with a control which, when activated, flashes the left and right directional signals, front and rear, all at the same time and in phase. This function is meant to indicate a hazard such as a vehicle stopped in or near moving traffic, a disabled vehicle, a vehicle moving substantially slower than the flow of traffic such as a truck climbing a steep grade, or the presence of stopped or slow traffic ahead on a high speed road.

In vehicles with a separate left and right green turn signal tell-tale on the dashboard, both left and right indicators may flash to provide visual indication of the hazard flashers' operation. In vehicles with a single green turn signal tell-tale on the dashboard, a separate red tell-tale must be provided for hazard flasher indication. They are regulated as automotive lighting devices, and specified to account for the separation between a vehicle's headlamps and its driver's eyes.

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Thus, vehicles are conspicuous even when their lights are off. International UN Regulations explicitly permit vehicle signal lamps with intensity automatically increased during bright daylight hours when sunlight reduces the effectiveness of the stop lamps, and automatically decreased during hours of darkness when glare could be a concern.

Both US and UN regulations contain provisions for determining the minimum and maximum acceptable intensity for lamps that contain more than a single light source.

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Some jurisdictions, such as the US states of Washington , Oregon and Idaho , permit vehicles to be equipped with auxiliary rear signal systems displaying green light when the accelerator is depressed, yellow light when the vehicle is coasting, and red light when the brake is depressed. The US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration , among other bodies, has commissioned studies of vehicle signal systems and configurations in an effort to determine the most promising avenues and best practices for enhanced crash avoidance via optimised vehicle conspicuity and signal lighting systems.

Most cars have at least one "dome light" or "courtesy light" located in or near the ceiling of the passenger compartment, to provide illumination by which to fasten seatbelts and enter or exit the car. These often have an option to switch on when the front or any passenger doors are opened. Many vehicles have expanded this feature, causing the overhead interior light to remain on after all doors are closed, allowing passengers to fasten seat belts with added illumination.

The extended lighting cycle usually ends when the vehicle's ignition has begun, or a gradual reduction in light emitted after a couple of minutes if the car isn't started, called "theater" lighting. Interior lighting has been added on some vehicles at the bottom edge of the dashboard, which illuminates the floor for front passengers, or underneath the front seats at the rear, to illuminate the floor for rear seat passengers.

This type of convenience lighting approach is also sometimes used to illuminate interior or exterior door handles, exterior step running boards, or electric window switches. LED light sources appear increasingly as interior convenience lights in various locations, especially with finely focused lighting on console control surfaces and in cabin storage areas. Map lights are aimed at specific passenger positions and allow for reading without glare distraction to the driver.


Automotive lighting

Some vehicles have "approach lighting" puddle lights in the exterior mirrors or lower edges of the doors, as well as interior lighting activated via key fob. Many cars have lights in the trunk or boot , the engine compartment, and the glovebox and other storage compartments. Modern pickup trucks usually have one or more white cargo lights which illuminate the bed of the truck, often controlled in conjunction with the interior dome lighting.

Most instruments and controls on a dashboard in modern vehicles are illuminated when the headlamps are turned on, and the intensity of light can be adjusted by the driver for comfort. Saab automobiles, for example, have an aircraft-style "night panel" function which shuts off all interior illumination save for the speedometer unless attention is called to a critical situation on another gauge to improve the driver's night vision. Emergency vehicles such as fire engines , ambulances , police cars , snow-removal vehicles and tow trucks are usually equipped with intense warning lights of particular colours.

These may be motorised rotating beacons, xenon strobes , or arrays of LEDs. In the United States and some other jurisdictions, amber lights are for tow trucks, private security personnel, construction vehicles, and other nonofficial special-service vehicles, while volunteer firefighters use red, blue, or green, depending on jurisdiction. Cars in the US only have red tail-lights, and no blue lights; a vehicle displaying a red forward-facing light flashing or not coming towards a driver, or from behind the driver in rear view mirror indicates that an official emergency vehicle is coming, requiring the driver to yield, pull off to the side of the road, or otherwise get out of its way.

In the UK, doctors may use green warning lamps although these do not allow the user to claim any exemption from road traffic regulations compared to the blue lights used by statutory emergency services when responding to calls. Special warning lights, usually amber, are also sometimes mounted on slow or wide vehicles such as mobile cranes , excavators , tractors , and even mobility scooters in certain conditions.

Taxicabs are distinguished by special lights according to local regulations. They may have an illuminated "Taxi" sign, a light to signal that they are ready to take passengers or off duty, or an emergency panic light the driver can activate in the event of a robbery to alert a passersby to call the police.

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The incandescent light bulb was long the light source used in all automotive lighting devices. Many types of bulbs have been used. Standardized type numbers are used by manufacturers to identify bulbs with the same specifications. Bases may be bayonet-type with one or two contacts, plastic or glass wedge, or dual wire loops or ferrules used on tubular "festoon" lamps. Screw-base lamps are never used in automobile applications due to their loosening under vibration. Signal lamps with internal or external coloured lenses use colourless bulbs; conversely, lamps with colourless lenses may use red or amber bulbs to provide light of the required colours for the various functions.

Tungsten-halogen lamps are a very common light source for headlamps and other forward illumination functions. They offer very long service life , extreme vibration resistance, and can permit considerably shallower packaging compared to most bulb-type assemblies. However, this faster rise time has not been shown to make cars with LED stop lamps less likely to be struck from behind. Adoption of LEDs for other signal functions on passenger cars is gradually increasing with demand for the technology and related styling updates. The low and high beams, along with the position parking lamp and front turn signal, are all realised with LEDs.

LED lamps are used for flashing beacon lights on vehicles such as maintenance trucks. The energy-efficient nature of the LED allows the engine to be turned off but the light continue to flash. LED lighting systems are sensitive to heat. Due to the negative influences of heat on the stability of photometric performance and the light transmitting components, the importance of thermal design, stability tests, usage of low-UV-type LED modules and UV-resistance tests of internal materials has increased dramatically. For this reason, LED signal lamps must remain compliant with the intensity requirements for the functions they produce after one minute and after thirty minutes of continuous operation.

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According to UN Regulations and , mechanical, electromechanical or other devices for headlamps must withstand endurance tests and function failure tests. High-intensity discharge , or HID lamps, sometimes referred to as "xenon lamps" are modified metal halide lamps employing xenon fill gas. Traditional HID lamps such as those used for general lighting have a long warm-up time. Headlamps must provide light very shortly after they are turned on, and xenon gas serves to reduce start-up time. Neon lamp tubes were introduced into series production for the centre high-mount stop lamp on the Ford Explorer.

The linear format of the neon light source lends itself to centre high-mount stop lamp installation, [ citation needed ] and neon lights offer the same nearly instant rise time as LEDs.

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However, neon tubes require a ballast. In distributive light systems, the light from a single source is sent via optical fibres or light guides to wherever it is needed in the automobile. Light guides are commonly used to distributively light dashboard displays, [] and premium vehicles are beginning to use distributive systems for lighting such items as door locks, window controls, and cup holders.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Blinker disambiguation. Main article: Headlamp. Main article: Daytime running lamp. Play media. For the tail lamp on rail vehicles, see End-of-train device. For the Game mixtape, see Brake Lights mixtape. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. March Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Emergency vehicle lighting.

Cars portal Transport portal. The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved 25 October Historic Vehicle Association. Wallaschek; Peter Boyce Automotive Lighting and Human Vision. United Nations Conference on Road Traffic. Retrieved 6 September Relative merits of the U.

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Optics and Wheels. Retrieved 24 November Archived from the original PDF on 29 October SAE Society of Automotive Engineers. Retrieved 14 August NSW Government Australia. Retrieved 31 December SAE International. Retrieved 18 July Archived from the original on 29 April US Department of Transportation.

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Results: The participants thought the room was warmer when the fluorescent lights were on than when it was lit just by computer monitors. They were not noticeably more aroused in the brighter condition, though, so, not that kind of warm. In the brighter room, participants wanted spicier chicken wing sauce, thought the fictional character was more aggressive, found the women more attractive, felt better about the positive words and worse about the negative words, and drank more favorable juice and less unfavorable juice.

Implications: Under bright lights, we feel more intensely. We want the spicy food, the favorable juice?